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Table I.

Melting point (°C, bulk fat), solid fat content (% SFC, bulk fat) at different stages in the production process of ice cream and fatty acid composition (wt%, ice cream) of control milk fat (C), milk fat enriched with unsaturated fatty acids (U), a low-melting milk fat fraction (L) and a high-melting milk fat fraction (H). Results are the mean of three or four determinations. SEM, standard error of means1; SFC−18 °C, SFC after storage at −18 °C; SFC3.8 °C, SFC after ageing at 2 °C; and SFC8.1 °C, SFC after ageing at 7 °C.

C fat U fat L fat H fat SEM P value
Melting point (°C) 35.43b 36.56b 18.77c 40.48a 2.02 < 0.001
SFC−18 °C (%) 83.47b 82.53b 76.98c 85.80a 0.99 < 0.001
SFC3.8 °C (%) 39.03b 38.80b 19.73c 54.15a 3.69 < 0.001
SFC8.1 °C (%) 36.76b 34.88c 9.71d 53.79a 4.74 < 0.001
SFA2 (%) 64.5b 61.8c 58.1d 70.2a 1.3 < 0.001
MUFA3 (%) 32.4c 34.0b 37.4a 26.8d 1.0 < 0.001
PUFA4 (%) 3.83c 4.15b 4.53a 3.02d 0.15 < 0.001
Total CLA5 (%) 1.41b 1.52a 1.31b 1.03c 0.05 < 0.001
ω66 (%) 1.77b 1.74b 2.42a 1.47c 0.09 < 0.001
ω37 (%) 0.662c 0.884a 0.808b 0.516d 0.038 < 0.001
ω6/ω3 2.68b 1.98c 3.00a 2.85a,b 0.43 < 0.001

Means with different letters (a, b, c and d) in the same row differ significantly (Duncan, P < 0.05).


Saturated fatty acids; sum of C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, 12mC14:0, 13mC14:0, C15:0, C16:0, 14mC16:0, 15mC16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C20:0, C21:0, C22:0 and C24:0.


MUFAs; sum of C14:1c9, C16:1t9, C16:1c9, C17:1c9, C18:1 total trans, C18:1c9, C18:1c11, C20:1c11 and C22:1c13.


PUFAs; sum of C18:2c9c12, C18:3c6c9c12, C18:3c9c12c15, C18:2c9t12, C18:2t10c12, C20:2c11c14, C20:3c8c11c14, C20:4c5c8c11c15, C20:5c5c8c11c14c17 and C22:5c7c10c13c16c19.


Conjugated linoleic acid; sum of C18:2c9,t11 and C18:2t10,c12.


Sum of C18:2c9c12, C18:2c6c9c12, C20:2c11c14, C20:3c8c11c14 and C20:4c5c8c11c14.


Sum of C18:3c9c12c15, C20:5c5c8c11c14c17 and C22:5c7c10c13c16c19.