Highlighted papers

ACE-inhibitory activity and ACE-inhibiting peptides in different cheese varieties

Food-derived peptides exert numerous functionalities in vitro and in vivo. At present, milk proteins are considered the most important source of bioactive peptides. Milk products containing hypotensive peptides are of interest for maintaining good health of humans with moderate hypertension. The two lactotripeptides Val-Pro-Pro (VPP) and Ile-Pro-Pro (IPP), first isolated from Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk, have been the subject of various in vivo studies and attracted great attention due to their commercial use in fermented sour milk having blood pressure lowering capacity. Similar to fermented milk, cheese is a natural source of casein-derived bioactive peptides. Apart from VPP and IPP, a large number of other ACE-inhibitory peptides have been isolated and identified over the last few years from various cheese varieties. The present review focuses on the occurrence of antihypertensive peptides in cheese and their potential to lower blood pressure with regard to the consumption of cheese.

Anne Thierry, Editor-in-Chief

ACE-inhibitory activity and ACE-inhibiting peptides in different cheese varieties
Robert Sieber, Ueli Bütikofer, Charlotte Egger, Reto Portmann, Barbara Walther and Daniel Wechsler
[Abstract] | [PDF file (1.320 MB)]

Investigation of surface modification of casein films by rennin enzyme action [...]

The application of powerful tools such as grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) equipped with a micrometer-sized beam (µGISAXS) with synchrotron radiation and scanning techniques to investigate the microstructure of casein film surfaces is described. Contrary to real space techniques such as atomic force microscopy and electronic microscopy, a two-dimensional intensity distribution profile is measured by GISAXS. Both a reflected signal and a diffusely scattered signal contribute to the GISAXS profile. The diffusely scattered signal allows details about the shape, size and size distribution of particles to be elucidated by fitting structural models to the data.

In this study, structural changes, deliberately induced on a prepared casein film by the addition of rennin, were detected and assessed using µGISAXS.

In order to correlate structural information of casein micelles with the microstructure of a rennin modified casein film surface, µGISAXS scans were performed with a step size of 5 µm. The results revealed an altered film surface morphology and structural changes of casein micelles towards para-casein micelles due to the diffusion limited migration and action of rennin within the casein film.

Anne Thierry, Editor-in-Chief

Investigation of surface modification of casein films by rennin enzyme action using micro-beam grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering
Ronald Gebhardt, Manfred Burghammer, Christian Riekel, Ulrich Kulozik and Peter Müller-Buschbaum
[Abstract] | [PDF file (1.283 MB)]

Split defect and secondary fermentation in Swiss-type cheeses - A review

Swiss-type cheeses are produced widely across Europe and the US and although many different varieties exist, most are identifiable by formation of characteristic round regular eyes coupled with the production of CO2 during warm room ripening. Split defects in Swiss-type cheeses are manifest as slits and cracks visible in the cut cheese loaf and lead to down-grading of cheeses resulting in an economic cost particularly at commercial production scale. The defect has been associated with excessive gas production or with unsuitable cheese body which cannot accommodate gas produced, or a combination of both factors. Secondary fermentation is linked with split defect as an apparent resumption of gas production and occurs during the cold room ripening. This review seeks to provide an up to date and comprehensive review of factors associated with the defects including those of rheological behaviour and overproduction of gas.

Anne Thierry, Editor-in-Chief

Split defect and secondary fermentation in Swiss-type cheeses – A review
David F.M. Daly, Paul L.H. McSweeney and Jeremiah J. Sheehan
[Abstract] | [PDF file (370.6 KB)]

Formation and properties of the whey protein/K-casein complexes in heated skim milk - A review

This review paper by L. Donato, from the Nestlé Research Center in Lausanne, Switzerland, and F. Guyomarc’h, from INRA-AGROCAMPUS OUEST in Rennes, France, stems from collaborative research between the authors, D. Dalgleish and M. Corredig at the University of Guelph, Canada, over the last few years.

The whey protein/?-casein complexes are formed in milk on heat-treatment due to the denaturation of whey proteins and are considered to be responsible for major changes in the ability of the raw material to be processed into cheese or yoghurt. These complexes are quite often regarded as whey protein aggregates; however, it is likely that the presence of casein molecules does play a role in their specific formation, structure and interaction properties, especially with the casein micelles when the milk system destabilises. This review attempts to cast light on the particular properties of the natural whey protein/?-casein complexes of heated milk. It also reviews the current proposed pathways describing their role in acid or rennet gelation.

Anne Thierry, Editor-in-Chief

Formation and properties of the whey protein/?-casein complexes in heated skim milk – A review
Laurence Donato and Fanny Guyomarc'h
Dairy Sci. Technol. 89 (2009) 3-29
[Abstract] | [PDF file (677.4 KB)]

Cheese in nutrition and health

The review paper by B. Walther, from the Swiss nutrition team of Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Research Station ALP, highlights the contribution of cheese to nutrition and health, and sumarises the latest results of the best research teams worldwide.

The paper was selected from the special issue of Dairy Science & Technology, dedicated to review articles and research papers from oral presentations at the fifth IDF symposium on Cheese Ripening held in Bern,  Switzerland in March 2008. The programme covered the latest scientific findings from all fields dealing with cheese ripening, from the sensory and functional properties of cheese to health and safety aspects.

Anne Thierry, Editor-in-Chief

Cheese in nutrition and health
Barbara Walther, Alexandra Schmid, Robert Sieber and Karin Wehrmüller
Dairy Sci. Technol. 88 (2008) 389-405
[Abstract] | [PDF file (335.8 KB)]

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Processing of Mozzarella cheese wheys and stretchwaters: A preliminary review

This paper reviews the processing and transformation of Mozzarella cheese wheys and stretchwaters into powder ingredients. In fact, the processing of increasing quantities of novel effluents from various sources is a challenge facing the dairy industry today, especially in the area of spray drying. Mozzarella cheese wheys and stretchwaters are such effluents, which, until recently, were spread on the land, due to the difficulties encountered during spray drying. Currently, it is important to valorise these products by correct processing. However, knowledge regarding the problems encountered is essentially empirical. Therefore, there is a need for a careful study of these products and their composition, which begins with a first look at the literature, presented in this review.
Anne Thierry, Editor-in-Chief

Processing of Mozzarella cheese wheys and stretchwaters: A preliminary review
Gwénolé Gernigon, Pierre Schuck and Romain Jeantet
[Abstract ] | [PDF file (315 KB) ]